Stock Market Trends

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Stock Market Trends – A stock price chart illustrating the stock market crash of 2020 shows a sharp drop in stock prices followed by a recovery.

A stock market crash is a sudden, dramatic drop in stock prices across a large cross-section of the stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth. Panic selling and underlying economic factors are contributing to the declines. Speculation and financial bubbles often follow.

Stock Market Trends

Stock Market Trends

A stock market crash is a social phenomenon in which external economic events combine with crowd psychology to cause some market participants to sell in a positive feedback loop. Generally speaking, crashes tend to occur under the following conditions: stock prices (bull market), excessive economic optimism, a market where price-earnings ratios exceed long-term averages, and excessive use of debt margin and leverage. Market participants. Other factors such as wars, major corporate hackers, changes in federal laws and regulations, and natural disasters in economically productive sectors can also cause a significant decline in the value of diversified stocks on the stock market. Despite the decline, share prices of companies that compete with the affected companies could rise.

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A stock market crash does not have a numerically specific definition, but the term generally refers to a stock market index falling by more than 10% over a period of several days. Crashes are often distinguished from bear markets (periods of declining stock market prices measured over months or years) because crashes involve panic selling and sudden, dramatic price drops. Crashes are often associated with bear markets; However, they do not necessarily have to occur simultaneously. For example, Black Monday (1987) did not lead to a bear market. Similarly, Japan’s asset price bubble burst within a few years without much decline. Stock market crashes are not uncommon.

Rain is generally unexpected. As Niall Ferguson said: “Before it crashes, our world seems almost to stand still at a certain point, and when it does – as it inevitably does – everyone is surprised. And our brain keeps telling us. It’s time to crash.” .”

Tulip mania (1634–1637), when some individual tulip bulbs reportedly sold for more than ten times the annual income of a skilled craftsman, is often considered the first recorded economic bubble.

In 1907 and 1908, the Knickerbocker Trust Company copper stock was manipulated, causing stock prices to drop nearly 50% due to various factors.

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Many investment funds and banks that invested money in the stock market failed and began to close. With the intervention of JP Morgan, further foreclosure of the banks was prevented.

The economy grew for most of the Roaring Twenties. It was a technological golden age when innovations such as radio, automobiles, aviation, telephones, and electricity transmission networks were introduced and adopted. Shares of companies that introduced this advance rose, including Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and Geralt Motors. Financial corporations also flourished when Wall Street bankers created mutual fund companies (known as mutual funds) such as Goldman Sachs Trading Corporation. The returns available in the stock market are attractive to investors, especially when leverage is used through margin debt (that is, borrowing money from your stockbroker to finance part of your stock purchase by using the purchased securities as collateral).

On August 24, 1921, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) was 63.9. By September 3, 1929, it had risen more than sixfold to 381.2. This level was not recovered for the next 25 years. By the summer of 1929, it was clear that the economy was going downhill and the stock market was going through terrible price drops. These declines fueled investor concern, with events culminating on October 24, 28, and 29 (known as Black Thursday, Black Monday, and Black Tuesday).

Stock Market Trends

On Black Monday, the DJIA fell 38.33 points to 260, a drop of 12.8%. The deluge of selling disrupted the ticker bar system that normally gives investors the current price of their stocks. Telephone and telegraph connections were severed and communication was impossible. This information vacuum has led to more fear and panic. The new era of technology that investors once celebrated has now only worsened their woes.

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The next day, Black Tuesday, was a day of chaos. Investors forced to liquidate their stocks due to margin calls flooded the stock market with sell orders. The Dow fell by 30.57 points to 230.07. Glamor shares saw a drop in value at the time. The DJIA fell 23% in two days.

The index was at 228 in the week of November 11, 1929, down 40% from its peak in September. Markets recovered in the following months, but the recovery was short-lived and led to further losses for investors. In July 1932, the DJIA lost 89% of its value. This collapse was followed by the Great Depression, the worst financial crisis of modern times, which affected the stock market and Wall Street during the 1930s.

The mid-1980s was a time of strong economic optimism. From August 1982 to its peak in August 1987, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) rose from 776 to 2722. The stock indexes of the world’s 19 largest markets rose an average of 296% during that period. The average number of shares on the New York Stock Exchange rose from 65 million shares to 181 million shares.

Black Monday, October 19, 1987, was the culmination of a market crash that began five days earlier, on October 14. The DJIA fell 3.81% on October 14th, followed by a 4.60% decline on Friday, October 16th. During Black Monday, the DJIA fell 508 points, losing 22.6% of its value in one day. The S&P 500 fell 20.4% to 225.06 from 282.7. The NASDAQ Composite’s 11.3% loss was not the result of seller control, but rather a failure of the NASDAQ market system. Overwhelmed by sell orders, many NYSE stocks faced trading disruptions and delays. Of the 2,257 stocks listed on the NYSE, 195 were delayed and halted during the day.

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The Nasdaq market was very bad. Because it relied on a “market maker” system that allowed market makers to withdraw from trading, liquidity in Nasdaq stocks dried up. The trading of many stocks is faced with a pathological condition in which the offered price of the stock is higher than the asked price. These “locked in” terms restrict trade. On October 19, Microsoft shares were traded on NASDAQ for a total of 54 minutes.

The drop was Wall Street’s biggest one-day loss in consecutive trading up to that point. The DJIA lost 760 points between the start of trading on October 14 and the close on October 19, a drop of more than 31 percent.

In October 1987, all major world markets collapsed or fell significantly. The FTSE 100 lost 10.8% on Monday and added 12.2% the following day. The least affected was Austria (a drop of 11.4%) and Hong Kong a drop of 45.8%. 19 of the 23 major industrialized countries experienced declines of more than 20 percent.

Stock Market Trends

Despite fears of a repeat of the Great Depression, the market recovered shortly after the decline, recording a record one-day gain of 102.27 the very next day and 186.64 points on Thursday, October 22. It took only two years for the Dow to recover. completely; By September 1989, the market had regained all the value lost in the 1987 crash. The DJIA gained 0.6% during the 1987 calendar year.

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No definitive conclusions have been reached about the causes of the accident in 1987. Stocks were on a multi-year rise, and price-to-earnings ratios on the American market were above post-war averages. The S&P 500 traded at 23 times earnings, a post-war high and above the average of 14.5 times earnings.

Herd behavior and psychological feedback loops play a key role in all stock market crashes, but analysts have tried to look for external events that trigger them. Along with general concerns that the stock market is overvalued, the decline was attributed to program trading, portfolio hedging, derivatives and previous reports of worsening economic indicators (ie a large US goods trade deficit and a falling US dollar, which seemed to imply future interest rate hikes ).

One of the consequences of the 1987 crash was the introduction of a circuit breaker or restriction on trading on the NYSE. Based on the idea that a cooling-off period helps eliminate panic selling, these mandatory market closures are triggered whenever a predetermined market decline occurs during the trading day.

OMX Iceland 15 closing prices for the five trading weeks from September 29, 2008 to October 31, 2008.

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On September 15, 2008, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the collapse of Merrill Lynch and the liquidity crisis of American International.

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